Age Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.
The Problem defined
Here at Kpop College in our academic department of science, students can also learn about Gerontology which is the study of aging.
This is a very important field, as we all age and many elderly who have already aged are now suffering from a whole host of age related diseases.
As you can see from the pie chart, the top 10 causes of mortality is from age related diseases. It is estimated that some 100,000 people pass away (every day) due these age related diseases. Just in 10 days alone, that is 1 Million people who have lost their lives to aging.
Listed in the table are the 7 Age Rejuvenation Therapies proposed by SENS Research Foundation to repair molecular and mutational damage. These are the top causes of mortality in the USA.
The Solutions defined
The Good News is that Science & Technology have finally advanced to a point that we can now peer into our human cellular structure and measure Molecules, DNA and Atoms. Once we can start measuring something, we can start engineering solutions to improve it's function (health span) and it's durability (life span).
Promising new scientific work called "Age Rejuvenation" is now in clinical trials to help elderly people "repair" accumulated molecular damage and turn their biological clocks back to a healthy state that will in turn significantly extend their life spans.
Age Rejuvenation Therapies
It is thought that when the body reaches some 7% of molecular damage (cellular senescence accumulation) it no longer has benefits on emergency brake for cancer cells. With age rejuvenation therapies you take medicine when you reach say 50 years old around 5% molecular damage which then removes the extra senescence cells back down to 4% which reverses your biological age back to 40 years old. Then when you reach 50 again technology has improved again and now the next treatment takes you to 3% which reverses your biological age to 30 and so on.
And with repeated age rejuvenation therapies that keep repairing molecular damage, your chronological age (the number of years you lived on earth) keeps increasing. With this constant repair approach method you always stay in a good state of health which turns your biological age back to a more youthful state, your appearance, your cells, your arteries, your tissue,your organs all improve to a molecular state of more of your 20 to 30's age. This repeated process of repairing will keep you healthy while your chronological age increases which is no more how many years you lived on earth. If all things go to plan, humans can one day enjoy a healthy body with natural benefits of a longer life spans that can take them up to 1,000 years and more. Just imagine being chronologically 1,000 years old, while your biological age is actually only 25 years old at a young youthful healthy state!
Note: The black line is the current human average life span and corresponding molecular damage. The red line is age rejuvenation therapies at work turning back your body to a healthy youthful molecular state while the blue line is your chronological age. The percentage of molecular damage shown is an estimate at this time for illustration on the process but thought to be somewhere in that range. To simplify the graph the term molecular damage is used for both molecular and gene mutational damage that accumulates.
World Renowned Gerontologist Dr. Aubrey de Grey Interview
Listen to Dr. Aubrey de Grey explain his pioneering efforts the last two decades to raise awareness that biologically aging can be solved by repairing molecular and mutational damage faster than it appears.
It has been reported that Aubrey inherited some $16 million and he spent most of it (some $13 million) in forming the SENS Research Foundation that focuses on bringing this bio-technologies to clinical trials and to the market.
Aubrey is the founder and Chief Science Officer at SENS where he and his non profit company are working to improve health and reverse aging by focusing on just 7 categories that cause molecular and mutational damage that accumulates over time. When that process is not repaired it continues to damage more cells, tissues, organs and the human body eventually succumbs to mortality.
So why do humans age in the first place?
Aches & Pains
Human DNA Sequenced
How can science reverse molecular damage to stop aging?
There are seven applications in development and some already in clinical trials developed by world renowned biomedical gerontologist, Dr. Aubrey de Grey from the SENS Research Foundation in Mountain View, California, USA. You can help support them with small donations to fund their scientists and work to bring these advanced quickly to the market.
RepleniSENS is the technique of replacing lost cells. The Thymus gland produces T immune cells that destroys viruses and mutated cancer cells while leaving good cells alone. But over time the thymus shrinks & less T cells are available to destroy bad cells leaving the body with less good cells.
Muscle cells loss causes Sarcaropina disease, Brain loses neuron cells causing Dementia and fine motor muscle cells loss creates Parkinson's disease. When these diseases set in later in life for the elderly they lose mobility. This limits their ability to exercise, weight increases further making it more difficult to exercise. For good cells to be constantly replaced through mitosis, exercise helps to keep the cells healthy so parent cells can divide into two daughter cells. But through time we lose more cells as mentioned above. The RepleniSENS solution is to take our own stem cells and recreate the thymus gland using an artificial biodegradable scaffold the permits it to regrow the thymus gland and repair it so it can get back to work destroying bad cells.
Learn more about RepleniSENS at SENS Research Foundation.
OncoSENS is the technique of stopping cancer cells. Everytime mitosis occurs where the parent cell splits into two smaller daughter cells to replace old dying cells the Telomere's in the nucleus of the cell keeps getting shorter. A cell can normally divide about 50 - 60 times before it reaches the Hayflick limit where the Telomere's can no longer get shorter.
When the telomere gets too short it sends signals to the chromosome to go into pre-programmed death of apoptosis. If cancer starts proliferating in a cell after 50 to 60 divisions the telomere is designed from years of evolution to tell the cell to go into apoptosis. It's a feature to help ensure if cancer is in cells it won't proliferate to other cells. Stem cells produce telomerase and this helps the telomeres to stay long so it can keep dividing. But with stem cells in the body it can feed pre-cancerous cells the telomerase it needs to keep proliferating and making more cancerous mutated daughter cells. The OncoSENS solution is to turn off the gene that creates telomerase so pre cancerous cells can't grow.
Learn more about OncoSENS at SENS Research Foundation.
MitoSENS is the process of preventing Mitochondrial damage. There is approximately 1,500 mitochondria located in each cell that processes food (sugar, fats, etc) and oxygen to power our body. However in the processing it produces some amount of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) molecules. These molecules sometime damage the Mitochondria DNA.
This will cause the mitochondria to not work properly and send out chemicals that damage other mitochondria in the cells and other cells. This eventually leads to tissue damage in the muscles causing Sarcopenia disease muscle loss and the neurological disorders of Parkinson's disease. The MitoSENS solution is to use gene therapy to deliver a backup copy of the mitochondria DNA into the cell nucleus where it is safe. Through millions of years of evolution the cells have learned by trial and error and moved most of the mitochondria DNA into the safe nucleus except for 1%. Then when mitochondria DNA is damaged, backup copies would be supplied by the proteins supplied by the mitochondria in the nucleus. This would leave the mitochondria in a mutant state but prevent it from leaking toxic chemicals to damage other mitochondria and tissues where it is located.
Learn more about MitoSENS at SENS Research Foundation.
ApoptoSENS is the process of clearing out sleeping senescent cells more than (~7%). One example is when the immune T cells search for viruses or cancer cells. When they discover an intruder who the remember they will form cytotoxic T cells. Those cells go in an destroy the virus or cancer cells.
But after that occurs, the cytotoxic T cells go into apoptosis and die. Some however go into a sleeping senescent mode to remember the virus and some senescent cells lose it's ability to respond to new pathogen signals. These senescent cells will accumulate over time and block the area where new healthy cells can be stored in the tissue and organs. The solution with ApoptoSENS is to send a vaccine out that will search for the senescent cells that is leaking out specific chemicals to destroy only those cells.
Learn more about ApoptoSENS at SENS Research Foundation.
GlycoSENS is the process of breaking down sticky bonds. When blood sugar flows through the arteries sometimes it will open up and stick to the stretchy lattice protein wall of the artery. And sometimes they will attach two lattice protein strands that make up the artery wall. This slowly prevents the arteries to expand and restrict efficiently to pump blood through from the heart.
This will make it harder for the heart to pump blood through all the arteries thereby raising blood pressure. This will lead to heart disease (Heart Attacks), Stroke and Kidney damage. The solution is to deliver a molecule that will only break the cross links between the artery wall lattice protein strands that will permit them to flex and pump blood correctly from the heart to the other organs.
Learn more about GlycoSENS at SENS Research Foundation.
AmyloSENS is the process of dissolving plaques that build up in the brain neuron cells that cause Alzheimer's disease. The neurons in our brain break down protein molecules called APP. Normally the breakdown occurs in order with an enzyme called alpha-secretase then by gamma-secretase. But in some cases beta secretase reacts with APP protein first.
When that occurs a sticky beta amyloid is created that sticks together to create a new molecule beta oligomers or larger sticky ones called fibrose molecules. Those two molecules then coat the neuron and form a plaque around it. This causes molecular damage of the neuron leading to a decline in mental abilities and Alzheimer's disease. The solution is to remove beta amyloid from the brain to healthy neuron transmission can be repaired.
Learn more about AmyloSENS at SENS Research Foundation.
LysoSENS is a process cholesterol is delivered on particles through our arteries. But sometimes the particles get stuck and the white blood cells (macrophages) come to clear them out and take it to the cells lysosomes where it is broken down by it's enzymes. The waste is disposed back into the blood stream to be taken away but some filtered cholesterol becomes oxidized.
The white blood cells (macrophages) have a difficult time to process oxidized cholesterol. This accumulates preventing normal cholesterol from being processed. When this accumulation occurs the create "foam cells". This accumulates into plaques in the arteries. And after a while the plaques will break off causing blood clots to repair the damage artery leaking wall. The blood clots then trap the plaque in the arteries to cause Strokes and Heart Attacks. The solution is to give new enzymes to the white blood cells so they can process oxidized cholesterol.
Learn more about LysoSENS at SENS Research Foundation.
How can I help assist in solving the world's greatest problem?
Stop on over at our Kpop College cafe to chat with other students on campus about this very important topic of Age Rejuvenation. Discuss the 7 SENS Research Foundation strategies developed by world renowned biomedical gerontologist, Dr. Aubrey de Grey.
How can you make a difference in the world and help those who are now in their elderly years greatly improve their health of molecular damage and turn back their biological age back to a healthy age in their 20's?
Teach others Age Rejuvenation
Review the material and videos shown above and at SENS Research Foundation to fully wrapped your mind on why we age, why we get diseases, why it leads to mortality and what are the 7 causes and 7 therapies being proposed by SENS to help "repair" molecular damage.
When you become very knowledgeable in a subject matter you can become more convincing so your message is received well.
What is DNA, Genes and Genome?
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) = Railroad Tracks
with the letters AT, GC holding the rails together called base pairs. Twist this and you have DNA.
Gene = Railroad Car is one region on the DNA that comprises of 10k to 10 million base pairs.
Genome = All 23 pairs of chromosomes of the DNA strands that is contained in the nucleus of a cell.
What causes mutations and diseases?
99% of the time our DNA is automatically repaired within our cells. There are 3 repair methods: Nucleotide excision repair, Base excision repair or DNA Mismatch Repair. Through millions of years of evolution our DNA has learned to repair itself by trial and error to survive. But when 1% remains not repaired, it will accumulate over time through Mitosis and eventually lead to the onset of diseases, tissue damage, organ damage and finally mortality.
What is Gene Editing?
Gene Editing is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted or replaced in the genome of a living organism using engineered nucleases, or "molecular scissors."
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short, repetitive base sequences.
SENS Research Foundation - SENS Research Foundation is a 501(c)(3) public charity that is transforming the way the world researches and treats age-related disease.
PubMed - Is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics.
National Institute of Aging - US Government agency for the Nation's research activities dedicated to understanding the nature of aging,
Rejuvenation Therapy Developers at a Glance - Provides an overview of all startups and research facilities working on their development.
Life Extension Advocacy Foundation - To promote the advancement of biomedical technologies which will increase healthy human lifespan.
Cell - A comprehensive site everything related to cells.
Digital Aging Atlas - The Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA) is a portal of age-related changes covering different biological levels. It integrates molecular, physiological, psychological and pathological age-related data to create an interactive portal that serves as the first centralised collection of human ageing changes and pathologies.
Human Ageing Genomic Resources - The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR) is a collection of databases and tools designed to help researchers study the genetics of human ageing using modern approaches such as functional genomics, network analyses, systems biology and evolutionary analyses.